Why are pepper seedlings sick and not growing?
There are many problems with growing peppers, if they are grown for the first time or rarely. Peppers are relatives of tomatoes, but they are more whimsical in care. They need more heat and light, they cannot stand temperature extremes, dampness and dryness, and suffer greatly from root damage. In addition to care errors, there are also diseases and pests that move to seedlings from poor-quality soil.
Optimal conditions for pepper seedlings
All the plants that we grow on windowsills and in vegetable gardens once came to us from the wild. To know exactly what conditions are needed for a particular culture, you just need to find out where it comes from. The homeland of capsicums and even those that are called Bulgarian peppers is tropical America. The tropics are characterized by relatively dry weather, moderate cloudiness, and easterly winds. Average daily temperature in summer: +20 ⁰C ... +27 ⁰C, in winter +10 ... +15 ⁰C. This means that we create just such conditions for seedlings of peppers. We do not dry the soil, and do not fill it, sometimes we spray the pepper leaves, it is possible in the morning, imitating dew, especially during the heating season and hot days. Locations - on the east, southeast windows. In warm weather, especially a week before landing in the ground, often open a window or window and ventilate.
Pepper in vivo
The most common pests and diseases - table
|spider mites||gray rot|
|earth mites||dry spot or alternaria|
|black bacterial spot|
The future of peppers, their health and yields are 50% dependent on soil quality and seed preparation. The other 50% of success is proper care.
Problems that arise when growing - table
|the lower leaves turn yellow starting from the veins||not enough food||little light|
|leaves curl, turn yellow and crumble||fusarium wilting||lack of potassium||spider mite|
|near the ground, the stem turns black, thinns, the seedlings lie on the ground and die||blackleg|
|leaves hang, wither, dry without turning yellow||lack of moisture, rare watering|
|dark green weeping spots with gray or white bloom appear on the leaves and stems||excessive watering, water stagnates, roots and ground part rot||gray rot||white rot|
|areas of leaves turn white, later turn brown in this place, dry out, crumble||sunburn, seedlings touching glass leaves or standing under the scorching sun|
|the seedlings stretched out and lay down||little light||blackleg|
|peppers don't grow||not enough food||too dense soil||wrong pick|
|seedlings die for no apparent reason||peppers are watered with cold water, a sharp temperature drop in the soil||overflow or overdrying of soil||damaged roots when picking or loosening|
|the soil is covered with a white or yellow coating||white mold||salt crust||too large pot, natural evaporation predominates over moisture absorption by the roots|
|small black spots (1-2 mm) appear on the stems, petioles and leaves, the tissue around them turns yellow||black bacterial spot||bacterial soil||seeds not pickled|
|brown large spots appear on the lower leaves, later the same symptoms appear on all leaves||dry spot or alternaria||contaminated land||seeds not pickled|
|small through yellow dots appear on the leaves, on the back side there is a cobweb and microscopic brown insects||spider mite||pest infested land|
|the leaves are deformed, do not grow, hang in damp soil, on the back of the leaf there are transparent, green or black insects||aphids||pest infested land|
|if you stir the peppers, white midges fly up, on the back of the leaf there are very small green larvae||whitefly||pest infested land|
|peppers look lethargic with regular watering, do not grow well, leaves are deformed||earth mite||excessive soil moisture|
Diseases of pepper seedlings and the fight against them
The seedlings died from the black leg
The black leg most often affects seedlings at the stage of the first true leaf. The stem near the very soil becomes transparent, darkens and dries up. The plant lays down on the ground and dies. All this suggests that the soil is contaminated, not treated before sowing. The blackleg fungus can live in any soil, but it does not develop in all conditions. Even if the ground is not warmed up or is not spilled with fungicides, the disease will bypass those seedlings that:
- grows on loose, moderately moist soil;
- not thickened and evenly illuminated by the sun;
- watered only with water at room temperature, there is no temperature drop on the soil.
Video: Black leg of peppers
Prevention and methods of struggle:
- Before sowing, spray the soil with Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 l of water), pour with a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g per 10 l of water), spill with boiling water, hold in a water bath for 10-15 minutes or warm up in the microwave for 10 minutes before steaming.
- Before sowing, treat the seeds with one of the following preparations: Fitosporin (4 drops of paste concentrate per 200 ml of water), Epin (1-2 drops per 100 ml), etc.
- Do not fill the seedlings, ventilate them, turn them on the window with different sides to the sun.
- Remove the dead and infected peppers, immediately transplant the remaining ones into another soil, add Fitosporin to the water during the first watering.
White rot settles mainly on diseased plants.
The disease often accompanies the black leg. A white fluffy coating appears on the stem, which spreads up the plant. The peppers are dying. The fungus loves dampness and low temperatures: +12 ... + 15 ° C. Also, its development is favored by sharp temperature drops in combination with high humidity.
Prevention and methods of struggle:
- Disinfect the soil before sowing and picking.
- Water the seedlings with water only at room temperature.
- Do not expose to the open sky in cloudy, damp or cold weather.
- For prevention, make foliar feeding: 1 g of zinc sulfate, 2 g of copper sulfate and 10 g of urea per 10 liters of water.
- Remove affected seedlings together with the top layer of soil (2-3 cm).
Signs of gray mold
The disease manifests itself in spots on leaves and stems, which can be dark green or brown, often weeping and always with a gray or pinkish fluffy bloom. The main reason is too damp soil, stagnant moisture, the roots do not breathe and rot, and behind them the ground part.
Prevention and treatment:
- Drainage is required.
- Water the peppers only as the top layer of the soil dries up.
- Loosen the soil, but very carefully so as not to damage the roots.
- Transplant the diseased plant into another soil.
- Spray with copper-containing preparations: copper sulfate (2 g per 10 l of water), HOM (40 g per 10 l of water), Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 l of water), repeat every 10 days.
Dry spotting or alternaria
Alternaria covers the leaves with large brown spots.
The disease is common in all areas where tomatoes are grown. Flexible affects all nightshades, including peppers. If they took the land for seedlings from their garden, then you should not be surprised at the symptoms of alternaria on the leaves of peppers. The spots are brown, dry, the development of the disease is promoted by heat and drops of water on the leaves.
Video: Brown spot (Alternaria) on tomatoes
Prevention and Treatment;
- Do not take soil for peppers from the area where tomatoes grew.
- In any case, disinfect the soil before sowing seeds.
- Pickle the seeds in a solution of phytosporin, potassium permanganate, etc.
- Sprinkle the peppers at the root.
- At the first sign, spray with the drug: Ridomil Gold (2.5 g per 1 l of water), Quadris (15 ml per 10 l of water) or copper-containing: copper sulphate, HOM, Bordeaux liquid, repeat after 10 days.
Fusarium pepper wilting
This disease affects already grown seedlings, in which the first buds appear. The lower leaves turn yellow, curl and fall off. The whole plant gradually dies. The fungus settles on weakened plants, in thickened plantings, loves dry soil and high temperatures (+28 ⁰C).
Video: Fusarium wilting, how to fight
Prevention and treatment:
- Grow varieties of peppers that are resistant to fusarium.
- Use only special primer. Fusarium develops on acidic soils.
- Disinfect soil and pickle seeds.
- Water the seedlings and feed them in time.
- Do not use chlorine-containing fertilizers.
- Do not thicken the plantings, ventilate.
- Spray every 10 days with Trichodermine (100 ml per 10 l of water).
Black bacterial spot
Black bacterial spot
The disease enters the seedlings through mechanical damage (breaks, scratches) from the contaminated soil. Bacteria can also live on the surface of seeds. Favorable conditions for development: high temperature (up to +30 ⁰C) and moisture on the leaves.
Prevention and treatment:
- Disinfect soil and seeds before sowing.
- Do not water over the leaves.
- Spray the entire ground part with one of the preparations: Fitolavin (2 ml per 1 liter of water), Planriz (1 ml per 1 liter of water), Fitosporin, HOM.
Pests and what to do with them
All pests are brought into the house along with the soil. They can transfer to seedlings from already infested indoor flowers. You can recommend keeping seedlings and flowers on different windows. However, there is a big plus from such a neighborhood. Firstly, a special plant microclimate is created, and secondly, the aroma of many indoor flowers repels pests. For example, if there are geraniums next to the peppers, then there will never be aphids and whiteflies. Any other fragrant flower works in the same way: lavender, jasmine, lemon, etc.
If pests are found on one plant, you should not take it to another window in isolation, you need to process all the flowers and all the seedlings that are in this room.
Aphids settle in colonies on the back of the leaf.
Small insects of black or green color stick around not only leaves, but also young stems, shoots, flower buds, that is, everything that seems juicy and tasty to them.
Video: Fighting pepper aphids with a shower
How to fight?
- If there are still few aphids, wash it off by hand with soapy water, you can use a soft brush or sponge for this. Most of the sucking individuals will be destroyed in this way, and the peppers will immediately grow easier. The soap the next day must be washed off the leaves, it clogs the pores and prevents the plants from breathing normally. Carry out water procedures on a sunny day, after covering the soil with a film.
- After a soapy bath, some of the pests and eggs will remain so that they do not multiply and settle again, spray them with chemicals: Intavir (1 tablet per bucket of water), karbofos (60 g per 10 l of water), Fitoverm (1 ampoule per 1 l of water), Decis (2 ml per 10 l), etc.
- Repeat the treatment every 7-10 days, changing the preparations. It is during this period that a new generation of aphids can be born and grow.
Whiteflies and their larvae
Small flies no more than 3 mm in size are very similar to aphids: they are the same omnivores, they settle their green larvae on the back of the leaf. They are distinguished by white wings. If you go to the peppers and stir their leaves, then the flies will fly up in flocks. The pest can come out of the soil or fly into the window.
Ways to fight:
- Place yellow cardboard or paper smeared with glue or something sticky on the window next to the peppers. These insects fly yellow.
- Sprinkle the soil in the pots with tobacco dust.
- Wash off the larvae with soapy water and treat with preparations from sucking pests: Spark, Decis, Ftoverm, Aktelik (2 ml per 2 L of water), Aktara (8 g per 10 L), etc.
- Repeat the treatment every 7-10 days.
- There are advice from gardeners to use a mosquito fumigator against the whitefly. Set it closer to the peppers.
Video: Fighting whitefly with biological products
Spider mites suck sap from leaves, causing them to turn yellow and shed.
These pests also settle on the back of the leaf and feed on the juices of the seedlings. Shapeless large spots of different shades appear on the leaves: from yellow to dark brown. On the reverse side, using a magnifying glass, you can see transparent, green and brown ticks. The color depends on the age of the individual. Contrary to the stereotype and name, there may not be cobwebs in the habitat of ticks. Therefore, it is not worth considering its presence as the main criterion when making a diagnosis.
The methods of struggle are similar to the previous ones: wash off with soapy water and treat with the same preparations. There are recommendations to spray with medical alcohol or vodka. For a start, it is better to test this original remedy on one leaf or plant.
Soil or root mite
A soil mite can easily turn from a helper to a pest.
There are many types of soil mites, with different colors, from transparent to red. They live in any soil, improve the balance of the soil, eating organic matter, rotten roots, leaves. But in conditions of high humidity, mites actively reproduce, there are a lot of them, there is not enough food, as well as space. The mites come to the surface of the soil and begin to feed on the juices of the seedlings. In this case, the pest not only takes strength from the peppers, but also introduces a putrid infection into the wounds. Small punctures appear on the leaves, on the back there is a semblance of brown scars, the seedlings can get rotten.
Video: Pests (soil mites) appeared on the seedlings, treatment with phytoverm
Prevention and control measures:
- Do not pour pepper seedlings, let the soil dry out a little.
- Sprinkle the soil with tobacco dust mixed with ash.
- Spray with drugs against ticks: Aktelik, Fitoverm, Aktara.
Care errors, how to eliminate their consequences - table
|Problem||The reasons||How to save seedlings|
|Seedlings die without signs of diseases and pests||When loosening or picking, the roots are damaged||Peppers are difficult to tolerate root injuries. It is better to grow this culture without picking or to dive at the stage of one true leaf, when the roots are still small and undeveloped. Peppers are transplanted only by transshipment, along with a lump of earth. You also need to carefully loosen the soil, only the upper few millimeters, and preferably around the perimeter of the pot, away from the root collar. If the roots are damaged, the peppers die or do not grow for a long time. After picking for 2-3 days, keep the peppers in the shade, during the rooting period, do not allow the soil to dry out.|
|Seedlings do not grow||Too dense soil, no air reaches the roots||Gently loosen the topsoil. Add river sand or peat and mix with the top layer of soil. For a pick, take another soil mixture, special for nightshades.|
|Not enough power||Once every 10 days, feed with Fertika Lux (10 g per 10 l of water) or other complex dressings for peppers or universal for seedlings|
|The peppers deeply deepened when diving. Do not deepen the root collar. The peppers are transplanted to the same depth at which they grew earlier.||No need to dig out, replant again. Peppers do not like to be disturbed by their roots. The seedlings will not die, but the harvest will be delayed.|
|Seedlings stretched out||Not enough light||If the seeds were sown before the end of February, then there is still little light on the window, backlighting is needed. It is also necessary to highlight on cloudy days. The length of the day for seedlings is at least 10-12 hours. Elongated seedlings do not need to be poured, dive deeper, or laid horizontally and buried at the very top. This will only slow down development even more, the peppers do not form roots from the stem, and the root collar must breathe.Transfer the seedlings to a light window or give backlight, preferably a couple of degrees to lower the temperature.|
|The lower leaves turn yellow at the very veins, there are no pests||Lack of nutrition, poor soil||Gardeners speak very well of the "Living Earth" soil, it contains all the necessary nutrients. The peppers grow strong and very vigorous. There is no need to specifically transplant the seedlings once more, feed the seedlings with complex fertilizers: Fertika Lux, Emerald (1 cap for 2 liters of water), Ferovit (1.5 ml for 2 liters of water), onion peel infusion (the color of strong tea), etc. days, it is desirable to alternate, that is, to give different. Seedlings will recover over time.|
|Soiled white mold||There are white mold fungi in any apartment, they love damp and acidic soil.||Mold spoils the appearance of the pot, but does not harm the seedlings themselves. Loosen the top layer, sprinkle with ash or crushed coal.|
|On the soil, a white or yellow salt crust||Unlike mold, this plaque has a crystalline structure and crumbles in the hands.||Salt crust is a wake-up call. Peppers are not properly looked after. Water only with clean, settled water, use filters. Give top dressing strictly according to the instructions on the packages, it is better to underfeed than overfeed. Mulch the seedlings with a small layer of sand and loosen with it.|
Many problems with pepper seedlings can be avoided by initially taking healthy soil and processing the seeds. It is also worth carefully studying the varieties of peppers and choosing disease resistant ones. Much depends on the care, but for the peppers it is simple: keep the soil moderately moist and loose, provide good lighting, sometimes give top dressing and do not disturb the roots unnecessarily.
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Growing peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse
Bell peppers are one of the essential components of our vegetable diet, and therefore they are readily and widely grown. Greenhouse peppers are the earliest to appear on the market. Every gardener wants sweet peppers from his polycarbonate greenhouse to compete with their neighbors on the market counters, to become a tasty and aromatic vitamin supplement in home dishes. In order to get the best, high-quality harvest, you need to follow the simple rules for caring for a vegetable crop in greenhouse conditions.
- There is another name for the "hedgehog" cactus.
- At the beginning of the 20th century, there were up to 3 dozen plants in the genus.
- Including hybrid forms, there are more than 100 species in the wild today.
- Echinopsis - a plant of the cactus family.
- South America is considered the homeland, but it is found in many countries with a warm tropical climate: Bolivia, the Andes mountain range, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay.
- Only a few of them are grown at home. Under natural conditions, the Echinopsis cactus grows on soils enriched with humus, therefore the roots are powerful and developed, and the growth is fast.
- At home, due to the lack of humus and moisture, the intensity of development is significantly reduced, but unlike other species, it is suitable for a novice gardener.
- Echinopsis often serves as a stock (acceptor) for other types of cacti, that is, buds of other species are grafted onto it.
- Large flowers of various colors up to 15 cm in diameter.
- The petals are arranged in several rows (up to 7 pcs.).
- There are white, red, yellow, pink colors.
- Depending on the species, the flowers open at night or in the morning.
- Some varieties have a strong aroma.
- The surface of echinopsis is covered with spines of various lengths depending on the variety, some are very sharp and long.
Under natural conditions, some of the cacti form impassable thickets. The surface is covered with ribs, on the tops of which light areoles are located, from 3 to 15 emerge from them. spines reaching lengths of 20-30 mm.
Long stem, with a peduncle at the end.
The flowering period is from mid-spring to the first cold snaps. Flowering is gradual over the course of weeks, at first several flowers begin to bloom, after 3 days they wither, but others open up.
For a successful and lush flowering, it is necessary to provide a humid climate and a low temperature during the dormant period.
The main features and differences of the genus are associated with colors:
- The buds are laid in the areoles of the middle of the plant and initially resemble brown fur.
- Flowers develop for almost two months, bloom depending on the species at different times of the day, live from 1 to 3 days.
- In the first month, growth is almost invisible, then the flower tube increases in size dozens of times.
- Before the long, pubescent flower tube opens, the color of the corolla petals is discernible.
- The Echinopsis flower usually begins to open in the evening and often gives off a pleasant scent.
- The funnel-shaped corollas reach 30 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter.
- Flowers are white, pink (almost all shades), lilac, yellow.
- The number of buds reaches 25 in old specimens.
Homeland of Echinopsis
The homeland of Echinopsis is the deserts of South America, in particular, virtually the entire territory from North Bolivia to South Argentina, as well as Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, South Brazil, Chile.
Echinopsis in Europe
It was Echinopsis among the very first cacti that came from South America to Europe. It was brought to the Old World by sailors traveling along the coast of America, amazed by the amazing view of thorny plants with large, delicate, beautiful and fragrant flowers, at the beginning of the 18th century.
Pay attention to the soil
Often the leaves of young peppers turn yellow due to the soil that is not suitable for seedlings. It can be waterlogged or emaciated. It is possible to determine what substance is lacking for the successful cultivation of young growth by the signs:
- The lower leaves most often turn yellow if the soil lacks phosphorus and magnesium.
- However, most often the lower shoots become lethargic from a lack of nitrogen. In this case, yellow and sluggish leaves can be seen not only from below, but also throughout the plant. Over time, the pepper sheds dead leaves and dies.
- Newly developed young shoots die off due to a lack of manganese, zinc, boron and iron.
- Lack of potassium first leads to discoloration of the edges of the leaf and its curling inward.
In addition to timely feeding, it is important to air the peppers from time to time (for example, take them out on the veranda on warm days) and shelter them from direct sunlight. Water only with warm water so as not to freeze the plant. Check the condition of the soil, it should not be very wet the next day after watering.
In case of a shortage of basic nutrients (except nitrogen), it is necessary to apply special complex fertilizers in preventive doses. One of the modern remedies, Agricola Vegeta, is well suited for this. The latter has won excellent reviews among amateur and professional gardeners. It is important that the composition of this dressing is based on organic ingredients.
Why do the leaves fall on seedlings of peppers
Pepper seedlings require special care, a lot of heat and moisture. First of all, the lower cotyledon leaves turn yellow and wither. This is the first sign that improper care is being taken.
See also: How often should peppers be watered in a greenhouse and open field
Possible causes of plant disease and methods of treatment are listed below.
- Lack of regular watering. Bell peppers require a lot of moisture, but this does not mean that the plant has to stand in a puddle of water. It is necessary to ensure that both the upper layer of the earth and the lower one are saturated with moisture, therefore it is necessary to water it often, but in moderation, so as not to flood the plant. With proper watering, both the upper and lower rhizomes are supplied with moisture. When planting seedlings on a bed for each pepper, a hole should be built and watered not once or twice, but regularly and little by little. This is hard work, but the Bulgarian pepper will thank you for it with juicy and large fruits.
- A sharp change in temperature, cold snap. The homeland of pepper is saturated with sun, moisture and persistent warm weather, but in other countries even summer is not hot. The air temperature should not be allowed to fall below 14 degrees, since the plant stops absorbing nutrients from the soil and freezes. As a result, the pepper begins to live autonomously, drawing life from the leaves, from which they turn yellow and fall off. And in the future, a similar fact will lead either to a poor harvest, or even to the death of seedlings. Even if such changes in the weather have come, then the plants should be warmed and wrapped in every possible way, feeding them with a large amount of humus and ash.
- If the weather and watering conditions are met, and the seedlings are still sick and the leaves fall off, then it may be due to a lack of nutrients. With a lack of nitrogen, the plant becomes long and pale, the leaves turn yellow and fall off, starting from the lower leaves. To save, nitrogen fertilizers should be applied or the seedlings should be sprayed with a special solution. With a lack of iron, first of all, the upper leaves turn yellow, and if urgent measures are not taken, the seedlings will die. The lack of the above substances affects most often, but there is also a lack of other nutrients. Cotyledon leaves also suffer from a lack of magnesium and potassium, and a lack of zinc, boron and manganese can be seen in the yellowing and falling off the upper leaves. To prevent a lack of nutrients, pepper seedlings should be fed with mineral fertilizers, but they should be added only after watering, otherwise the fertilizers will burn the roots, which will most likely lead to death. It is necessary to spray pepper only in the absence of bright sun, for example, early in the morning or in cloudy weather - so it will absorb nutrients faster.
- Failure to comply with crop rotation. Any self-respecting gardener knows that in order to obtain a plentiful and healthy harvest, the place for planting crops should be changed. However, you need to know that if nightshade crops were grown at the planting site before, then the excretion of their roots is toxic to other plants. Based on this, the pepper can be planted in the same place after three years, otherwise it absorbs toxins, it will be painful, and the leaves will fall off.
- All sorts of pests. To exclude this option, you need to carefully monitor the seedlings. Leaves can turn yellow and fall off due to the attack of aphids or spider mites. It is necessary to carefully examine the plant, and if detected, take measures to destroy the harmful insect.
- Other factors. The most commonplace circumstances can become the reason for the disease of the plant, its stuntedness and leaf fall. Such as very acidic soil, lack of sunlight and too deep planting of seedlings.
In general, sweet pepper is a rather capricious culture that requires a lot of attention, but if you follow the above simple rules, you should get a juicy and vitamin-rich harvest, and the leaves will remain fleshy and green.
See also: What is the technology for transplanting peppers into a polycarbonate greenhouse
4. Seedlings are strongly elongated
— Seedlings lack light... For germination of seeds, many plants do not need light, and as soon as a green loop of a seedling appears at the surface of the earth, light, and especially sunlight, becomes one of the most necessary growth factors. With a lack of lighting, the seedlings are strongly stretched, and stunted, frail plants can get sick and die at any time.
— Indoor high temperature... For germination, some seeds need greenhouse conditions, but seedlings no longer need such conditions. If the temperature in the room where the seedlings are located is not reduced (especially with a lack of light), then the seedlings will stretch out and fall. Therefore, after the emergence of seedlings, within 3-4 days, you need to lower the temperature and try to light up the seedlings around the clock.
— Early sowing of seeds... At the end of January - February, when the daylight hours are still short, there are not enough sunny days, there is not enough supplemental lighting, the seedlings are stretched out. You have to nurse a lot with such seedlings, and I think that the game is not worth the trouble. The seedlings planted in March with sufficient daylight will catch up and overtake the February seedlings.
- The box with seedlings is far from the window or the glass is dirty.
— Very dense shoots... Seedlings, due to lack of light, stretch and shade each other. When sowing seeds, spread them evenly over the surface of the soil, rather than sowing in piles.
— Delay with picking seedlings and their placement... If you are late in picking or replanting seedlings, then the plants located closer to the window pane grow faster, require more space, and shade the plants on the other side of the box. To keep the plants growing evenly, rotate the seedling box so that all the plants receive light. As soon as the plants begin to stretch and shade each other, they need to be planted in other containers, or the seedlings should be planted in a greenhouse or open ground.
— Surplus nitrogen fertilizers... The soil is oversaturated with humus or frequent fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers. With frequent watering, high room temperature and excess nitrogen, the seedlings grow strongly. It is necessary to lower the temperature, stop feeding with nitrogen fertilizers, reduce watering.
You need to know the enemy by sight. Diseases and pests of tomatoes
In order to prevent various diseases and attacks of worm beetles, it is imperative to take preventive measures and follow the prescribed rules of agricultural technology. However, this does not always work out. In order to understand what preventive and protective measures for your favorite tomatoes should be taken, you need to know the enemy in person: how and what tomatoes are sick with and who is harmful to their normal growth and fruiting.
Diseases of tomatoes: description and treatment, photos
Diseases in tomatoes occur of viral and fungal origin. Most often, tomatoes are affected if the plantings are very thickened, if other nightshades are planted next to the tomatoes, if, for example, in closed ground the levels of illumination, humidity and temperature are not observed.
it fungal disease, most common among nightshades. Most often it appears in cases of watering tomatoes by sprinkling, when drops of water stagnate in the axils of the leaves. Phytophthora actively spreads at high humidity levels and low air temperatures. Most often, such a microclimate is formed in rooms (greenhouses) where tomatoes are grown.
Signs of illness: on the fruits of tomatoes, on the stems and leaves, brown spots appear, on the trunks they are darker, drying out. It is extremely difficult to treat this disease. You can try to cure the bushes at the initial stage of the disease. However, if the plants are severely affected, it is better to remove them from the site and burn them.
Prevention, control measures: in protected ground, it is imperative to monitor the level of humidity, illumination, and temperature conditions.
- Greenhouses where tomatoes are grown should be regularly ventilated.
- Watering should be carried out with settled warm water in the aisles, try to prevent water from getting on the leaves and fruits
- Avoid waterlogging of soil and air
- Water as the top layer of the soil dries up about no more than once every 5-7 days, but spill the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm
- It is useful to spray the bushes every two to three weeks (depending on weather conditions) with fungicides such as Fitosporin or Trichodermin. Trichodermin can also be applied to the soil in boxes for seedlings, as well as before planting sprouts in the ground, it can be treated with Alirin B or Gamair (dissolve 1 tablet in 10 liters of water)
You can regularly carry out preventive spraying of plants with a solution of whey or an infusion of garlic with potassium permanganate (add 1 g of potassium permanganate and 1 glass of chopped garlic cloves to 10 liters of water. T water should be at least 25 ° C). It is good to spray the plants with infusion before flowering and immediately after the first signs of the disease appear (for 1 m2 - 0.5 liters of infusion).
Attention! After spraying the bushes with fungicides, the fruits should not be eaten for three weeks.
The disease is of a viral nature. The varieties of late tomatoes and those that were bred for a long time are more often affected. More modern, recently bred varieties and hybrids are endowed with resistance to this disease.
The virus is transmitted by aphids or by contact with the remnants of old vegetation through damaged areas on the stems and trunks of plants.
Signs of illness:
- leaves on the bushes curl
- the appearance of brown or yellow spots, stripes is noted
- leaves, stems become brittle, brittle
- on fruits, rounded spots of a changed color are formed
- necrotic green spots are formed inside the tomato.
There is no cure for the mosaic. The affected bushes should be dug up, removed from the site. Then burn it.
Prevention, control measures: in order to prevent the defeat of the bushes with mosaics, you should
- disinfect tomato seeds before sowing (with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, for example)
- choose tomato varieties that are resistant to this disease
- observe the required temperature, light conditions, humidity level
- feed the plants regularly.
You can carry out preventive spraying with an iodine solution (10 l of water + 10 ml of iodine) or every 10 days with a solution of urea and milk (10 l of water + 1 l of milk + 1 tsp of urea).
It is also called root rot. Most often it is a fungal disease affects seedlings, but adult plants also get sick with it, albeit less often.
The reasons: improper excessive watering, thickening of plantings, lack of lighting (more often indoors), prolonged low temperatures
Signs of illness: thinning. the trunk turns black near the very surface of the soil due to decay of the roots, then the leaves wither and dry out, brown spots form on their surface.
Prevention, control measures: to prevent the development of fungus, before sowing seeds for seedlings or planting them in the ground:
- the soil should be disinfected with fungicides (Trichopolum, Fundazol) or a saturated dark pink solution of potassium permanganate
- do not thicken the planting, observing the distance prescribed between the bushes
- provide seedlings or adult plants with the necessary light regime
- observe the rules of watering, in no case allowing excessive waterlogging of the soil, and also monitor the general level of moisture (especially in greenhouses)
- monitor the temperature regime, avoiding its prolonged decrease.
If the disease is noticed and already exists, watering should be stopped, the soil should be allowed to dry, the plants should be provided with good lighting (seedlings or indoors), the temperature in the room should be increased. So that the fungus does not grow, and the plants receive the required amount of moisture, watering should be done sparse, but abundant.
Prompt! Near the stems and roots, you can add sand by removing some of the soil. In this case, the moisture will immediately go to a depth, and the affected part will become drier, the fungus will lose a comfortable environment for its spread.
- The soil should be immediately disinfected with fungicides or potassium permanganate.
- It is useful to check the acidity of the soil itself, if the level is high, you can add lime or chalk to deacidify it.
- It is necessary to stop (at least temporarily) the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers.
As soon as the plants are a little stronger, plant them less often, providing ventilation, better lighting and an area for development and growth.
It is also called brown spot. Cladosporois - fungal disease, which very easily spreads with particles of already infected soil, through the clothes of a summer resident-gardener or through fallen leaves, branches, from animal hair, etc. Most often, this fungus affects tomatoes growing in greenhouses; in open beds, the disease is rare.
The reasons: increased levels of both humidity and temperature.
Signs of illness: on the leaves, on their reverse side, the appearance of brown spots and a gray velvety bloom, which are mushroom spores, is noted.
Prevention. Control measures: to prevent infection with cladosporium, plantings should not be thickened; plants should be regularly inspected for the appearance of infection. If tomatoes grow indoors, the greenhouses must be regularly ventilated, the humidity level and temperature must be observed. The rules of crop rotation and agricultural techniques for growing tomatoes must be observed. Before planting seedlings, it is worth adding lime to the soil (to a depth of 30 cm), it is useful to mulch the soil.
If brown spots and plaque are found, measures should be taken as soon as possible:
- Tear off the affected leaves and burn
- Cover the soil well with a black film.
- Limit watering once a week, water in the morning
- Spray plants with fungicides (for example, Fitosporin M, Hom, etc.), every 1 in 10 days (the dosage is indicated in the instructions for the preparations)
- You can apply folk methods of processing plants: a solution of milk with iodine (0.5 liters of fresh milk + 15 drops of iodine, add the mixture to 5 liters of water), spray every 2-3 days. You can, for example, use a solution of potassium permanganate with ash, etc.
Advice! In order not to dissolve soap every time for better retention of any solution, infusion or decoction on the green mass of plants, you can prepare a soap concentrate and then add it as needed.
Spraying with fungicides or folk remedies is best done as a preventive measure, and not wait for the plants to get sick.
Kinds of this fungal disease there are several. Plants in greenhouses are mainly affected by rot.
Causes of the disease:
- Using soil not decontaminated before planting
- Failure to comply with the cleanliness of the room
- Violation of the rules of crop rotation
- Using untested, uncontaminated seeds
- Violation of humidity and temperature conditions in the greenhouse.
When violations are eliminated and the necessary rules of tomato farming are observed, the risk of rotting bushes is significantly reduced.
It develops if favorable conditions are not created for growth in the room too hot and the humidity level is exceeded. Also, the reason may be a lack of potassium in the soil and its salinity.
Signs: brown spots of a round shape are formed on the fruits. Under the blackened skin, the pulp begins to rot. The affected area becomes softer. When you touch a rotten tomato, the fruit immediately falls.
Treatment: it is very difficult to treat, but the disease spreads very quickly. Therefore, when sick specimens are found, it is easier to remove one or two diseased plants immediately and take preventive measures:
- watering should be rare, but abundant
- soil - loose or mulched
- stop feeding with nitrogen fertilizers, but add nutrition with calcium (1 g of calcium chloride + 10 l of water)
- spray (according to the instructions) with Fitosporin-M or preparations containing copper (for example, Bordeaux liquid).
To strengthen the immunity of tomatoes, it is useful to treat young plants with growth biostimulants.
Fungus also affects plants mainly in greenhouses, where the humidity level is exceeded and hot.
Signs: the appearance of a gray bloom on the stems and branches of the bushes indicates the presence of the disease. Plaque spreads further throughout the plant causing tissue necrosis, rapid wilting of the bush and its death.
Prevention, control measures: if one or two infected plants are found, it is easier to carefully remove and burn them right away, and for the rest, take preventive measures: treating all bushes with fungicides every 10-14 days. The plantings should be regularly inspected for damage to their diseases.
It most often occurs on mechanically damaged parts of the plant. The cause of infection is most often not disinfected soil and compost, in which diseased plants were laid.
Signs: white bloom begins to cover the green mass of the bush, roots, then affects the entire plant completely, including the stalks and fruits. Leaves and stems become watery.
Prevention, control measures: shown spraying tomato plants, other nightshade with a solution of urea (10 g) + copper sulfate (2 g) + zinc (1 g) - per 10 liters of water. Treatments with fungicides (Fitosporin-M, Oksikhomi, etc.) are effective.
Brown rot (Fomoz)
Fungus settles on fruits both still green and ripe. A comfortable environment for the spread of the fungus is high humidity, excess nitrogen fertilization.
Signs: At first, a small brown speck forms near the stalk, which then grows, but not much. The maximum diameter is about 3 cm. But the small size of the speck does not mean that the lesion is light - the rot spreads inside the tomato itself.
Prevention, control measures: it is better to remove diseased bushes and burn them immediately, only very carefully so that the spores of the fungus do not spread to other plants.
Healthy bushes should be sprayed with fungicides containing copper: Bordeaux liquid, copper chloride, Zaslon, Fundazol, Oxyhom.
Prevention of rot infestation
Since rot most often affects tomatoes grown in greenhouses, to prevent diseases, you should:
- Keep the greenhouse clean, after harvesting, remove plant residues from the room, and disinfect the greenhouse itself, including the soil in it
- In the spring, before planting seedlings, thoroughly wash the greenhouse, disinfect it using sulfur checkers, for example, disinfect the soil
- Having landed plants in the room, you must constantly monitor the level of humidity, illumination, temperature conditions, and regularly ventilate
- Do not thicken the planting, follow the rules of agricultural practices, watering and fertilizing norms
- Disinfect seeds before sowing
- Do not plant plants of the same family nearby (for example, plant peppers, eggplants and tomatoes far from each other)
- Regularly inspect plants for infection with viruses and fungi
- To carry out preventive treatment of crops with fungicides or solutions, infusions, decoctions according to folk recipes.
These measures will allow gardeners to save a lot of time and harvest, so that they do not have to remove already diseased plants, losing the desired fruits.
The disease is caused bacteria, most often affects plants in greenhouses, manifests itself at the stage of formation of the first or second brush on tomato bushes.
The reasons: bacteria are especially active if the room has a high level of humidity, an excess of nitrogen fertilizers and low night temperatures or sudden temperature changes. The source of infection can be non-disinfected seeds and non-disinfected soil.
Signs: on the lower, root part of the stem of a tomato bush, longitudinal depressed cracks appear (up to 50 cm long), then a creamy white liquid begins to ooze from these cracks, and small brown-brown spots form on the lower part of the leaves. In the root part of the stem, many thin white roots begin to appear. Fruits at different stages of ripeness are also affected: light-veined nets form on tomatoes. The bush eventually dies.
Prevention, control measures: it is useless to treat such infected plants. They should be carefully removed from the greenhouse or from the garden (which happens very rarely), then burned. The soil where the diseased bushes grew must be disinfected (for example, with a 2% Phytoflavin solution or Bactofit). Before sowing for seedlings, it is better to treat the seeds with at least a saturated pink solution of potassium permanganate (for 30-40 minutes), and treat the roots of the sprouts with a solution of Fitosporin before planting in the greenhouse.
Be sure to monitor the modes of humidity, temperature, light in the room, do not overfeed tomatoes with nitrogen, and regularly ventilate the room.
Fungal disease, it is spread by two types of fungi, and most often the disease affects tomato bushes in greenhouses.
The reasons: thickened plantings, waterlogging, excess nitrogen in the soil, high humidity in the room.
Signs: white or yellow (with a green or yellow tint) spots appear on the leaves, then on the stems, which spread throughout the plant. The fungus is transmitted by air, waterways, with the help of parasitic insects (for example, aphids) or with clothing, etc. gets on plants.
Prevention, control measures:
- Increase the content of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, follow the rules of watering
- Monitor the mode of humidity, light and temperature in the room, reduce nitrogen fertilization
- Useful preventive spraying with Humate, Epin
- It is recommended by agronomists to spray diseased plants with Fundazol or Topaz, potassium permanganate. Immunocytophyte, Bordeaux liquid, having previously removed the affected leaves, parts of the stem, brushes, etc. from diseased bushes.
Attention! It should be remembered that infection with diseases is always easier, cheaper, easier to prevent than to fight against fungi, viruses, rot, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the prescribed rules of agricultural technology, especially for greenhouses. These measures will save the summer resident-gardener time, effort, money, harvest.
Plants need to be looked after, at least minimally, regularly inspect the bushes for infection with diseases or damage by their pests.
Watch the video! You can also watch a video about tomato diseases and their treatment.
In addition to diseases, tomatoes are also threatened by various pests that live in the soil or fly, crawl, and are carried through the air. Those unwanted guests whoa
kind are very fond of feasting on all parts of tomato bushes.
The click beetle lays its larvae in the soil, which are worm-like caterpillars. Caterpillars are yellow, about 20 cm long, rather dense. The wireworm often damages the roots, but it also penetrates the stem.
Control measures, prevention:
- 3-4 days before planting seedlings in the greenhouse, pieces of raw potatoes, carrots or beets strung on sticks, for example, are introduced into the ground to a depth of about 10-12 cm, the tips of the sticks should stick out from the soil. After two to three days, the trap pieces need to be removed and burned
- Regular digging of soil is useful
- If there is a lot of wireworm, you can use Bazudin: it is mixed with sand or sawdust, the mixture is applied to the soil next to the plants
- Helps liming the soil and the introduction of mineral fertilizers
- The wireworm categorically does not like mustard: it can be sown in the aisles, then the green mass can be dragged into the soil before it blooms. This green manure is an excellent fertilizer and perfectly disinfects the soil, cleans it from insect pests. It is also useful to sow mustard after harvesting the remains of tomato bushes in autumn and early spring, 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings.
Mustard rises quickly and quickly builds up the green mass that is nutritious for the tomato.
Its larvae (worms), very small, fall into the ground together with rooted seedlings or seedlings, feed on the roots of tomato bushes, form swellings and outgrowths on the roots. Such nematode-affected plants grow poorly, bear fruit rarely and poorly.
Control measures, prevention:
- The room should be disinfected in the spring, the top layer of the soil should be changed before planting.
- The rest of the earth should be dug up
- Water the soil with infusion of tomato tops: the larvae wake up after hibernation, not finding food - they die
- The planting of trapping green manure plants is shown (2-3 weeks before planting the culture). The nematoda, penetrating into their roots, dies when the green manure is plowed into the ground.
- The introduction of Fitoverma into the soil (to the depth of the roots of tomatoes) helps, for example, it can also be introduced into the planting holes when planting seedlings
- Treatment of the soil with infusion of garlic helps
- A month before planting crops, you can add bleach to the soil, dig it up or close it up with a rake
- If there are a lot of nematodes, you can use Basamil
If the rules of agricultural technology are followed, especially for closed ground, the soil is disinfected and disinfected, the appearance, especially of a massive one, can be successfully avoided.
It appears extremely rarely in greenhouses, more often it destroys crops in open beds. It dwells mainly in the ground at a depth of 15-20 cm, gnaws at the roots on the surface, it is rarely selected.
Control measures, prevention: tillage from above does not help much.
- It is more effective with the pest to promote the laying of granules of special agents in the passages and nests that the bear arranges and lays in the soil. (Medvetoks, Bankol, Pochin, Grizzly. Thunder, etc.)
- An infusion of hot red pepper (10 liters of water + 150 g of chopped pepper) or table vinegar (2 glasses), ammonia, which must be poured into the pest's hole, helps.
It is possible to plant the site and the beds with Chinese carnations around the perimeter - the bear does not like her very much, it is unlikely to fly from the neighboring site.
The insect is very small, prefers to settle on the back of the leaves, sucks the juice out of them, braids everything with cobwebs. At first, small dots form on the leaves, then the foliage dries up. falls off. The spider mite actively develops at very low humidity.
Control measures, prevention:
- Greenhouses should be regularly ventilated and kept to the prescribed humidity level.
- Timely it is necessary to detect, carefully remove and burn damaged parts of the bushes
- Weed removal and earth digging required
- Tomato bushes, the soil around them should be treated with Fitoverm (1 ml of the drug + 1 l of water)
- Spraying crops with infusions of onion husks and (or) garlic helps.
Prompt! In order to eliminate the pest at the earliest stage, crops should be regularly inspected in order to detect insects in time and take the necessary measures.
Butterflies are very small (1-3 mm in length), and their larvae are even smaller. The pest settles on the lower part of the leaves, sucks out the juices. The butterfly is also a carrier of viruses, bacteria and other pests, therefore it is a huge danger to the entire site and closed ground. Its discharge is a shiny bloom (honeydew), in which a sooty fungus settles, forming a black bloom. Crops dry first. Then they die.
Control measures and prevention:
- Insecticides have proven themselves well: Fitoverm, Golden Spark, Aktara
- Spraying of useful crops with garlic or tobacco infusion.
Attention! Before using this or that insecticide or fungicide (for diseases), you should carefully study the instructions, ask the seller - how much and with what other drugs this remedy is compatible.
There are three types of them: garden, potato, winter. All are harmful to garden crops. Caterpillars usually gnaw all parts of tomatoes: foliage, leaf stalks, stems and twigs.
Control measures and prevention:
- Plants should be treated during the growing season with Inta Vir or Lepidocide, Arrow
- Spraying tomato bushes with infusion of tomato tops, a decoction of wormwood
- Weeds should be removed regularly, and the soil should be dug up.
Caterpillars can be harvested by hand. However, it is easier to deal with the pest as soon as it has appeared in order to prevent it from multiplying in all plants. For this, regular inspection of crops is essential.
This insect and its larvae form entire colonies on the underside of the leaves. She sucks the juices from the plant, is able to destroy the entire bush in a very short time.
Control measures and prevention:
- Treatment of plants with insecticides: Fitoverm, Iskra, Aktara, Confidor maxi
- Spray tomato foliage during the day, in calm sunny weather
- Treatment of bushes with tobacco or garlic infusions.
It is very useful to plant tomato dill or celery in the aisles of bushes, which aphids do not like very much.
Colorado potato beetle
Beetles and its larvae most often settle and harm potato plantings, and eggplants do not leave alone. It can be found much less often on tomatoes and peppers. However, if nightshades grow next to each other, the beetle destroys them all.
Control measures and prevention:
- Help spraying with Iskra, Aktara, Mospilan
- It is good for prophylaxis to plant nightshade plots with legumes, calendula, nasturtium, garlic
- For an environmentally friendly fight against the beetle, lacewing and ladybugs, which are its natural enemies, help.
Interesting! Partridges, turkeys, guinea fowls, pheasants cope most actively and successfully with the Colorado potato beetle. Chicks at 3-4 months of age are taught to eat beetle larvae, then adults are released to areas where potatoes or other nightshades grow. Birds eat beetles and their larvae with pleasure. In addition, they provide excellent dietary meat and eggs. Only in this case, the use of chemical preparations for plants is prohibited.
Pests gladly eat foliage and fruits, especially in the ripening stage of the tomato. The damaged parts of the bushes begin to rot. These shellless snails are also carriers of fungi and putrefactive infections.
Control measures, prevention:
- Scatter Ulitsid, Meta or Thunderstorm on the ground
- Sand or coniferous needles scattered on the surface of the earth also successfully help.
- They do not like slugs and mustard (powder), hot red pepper powder, garlic infusion, lime mixture (+ ash + tobacco dust).
Slugs prefer smooth surfaces. Therefore, it is important to regularly loosen the soil and process it with appropriate means.
In conclusion, it should be noted that by adopting the necessary and simple methods of preventing diseases and pests, you can save a lot of time, effort, money, and also get a rich healthy harvest. The rules of agricultural technology are not very burdensome, it is not difficult to follow them. But the plants will develop and bear fruit successfully and efficiently. Measure is important in everything: in the distance between tomato bushes, in the amount of watering, dressing. Correct crop rotation is equally important.
Watch the video! You can also watch a video about pests of tomatoes and the fight against them.