Practical tips for growing blueberries and blueberries
Forest guests come to the gardens
Recently, more and more plants have begun to appear in gardens that were previously considered forest or marsh. Increasingly, gardeners and summer residents are planting on plots garden blueberries, especially since her seedlings are now on sale. And it's no surprise that sometimes gardeners fail.
First of all, it must be remembered that successful cultivation is possible only if the soil is properly prepared.
The first and the most important condition: for the successful cultivation of this crop, the soil must be acidic: pH 4.0-5.0; but not higher than 5.5, otherwise the blueberry will develop chlorosis and die. Most garden soils are not acidic enough to grow cultivated blueberries. And therefore, yellowish leaves soon begin to appear on the planted bushes, the bushes almost stop growing, and then completely die.
Second condition - the soil must be well water-permeable and air-permeable (i.e. it can be sand, peat, peat-sand mixture, etc.). Very often, gardeners think that since blueberries and blueberries grow in swamps, then they need to arrange something similar to a swamp on the site. But this is not the case. Heather plants do not grow in the swamp itself, but on hummocks, and stagnant moisture leads to souring of the roots and death of plants. How can such conditions be achieved?
Choosing a place for the bushes. A prerequisite is to choose the right place where you will plant blueberry bushes. It should be sunny. Protection from the wind is also desirable, especially from the north side. It is a misconception that blueberries and blueberries love the shade, since they grow in the forest. For the plant to bear fruit well, choose places that are open to the sun, but protected from the wind. Some partial shade is also possible.
Soil preparation. If the soil on your site is the most common, that is, not acidic, then 5-6 buckets of soil are taken out of the planting pit 40-50 cm deep and 1 m in diameter. They insulate the pit with boards, polyethylene or pieces of tin - only from the sides - the walls of the pit to prevent widespread roots and silting. If the soil is heavy, clayey, then the bottom of the pit is laid out with small stones, broken red brick, forming a drainage.
The soil from the pits is mixed in a 2: 1 ratio with peat crumbs, rotted oak leaves, crushed by kitchen cleanings, and even better - with partially rotted pine-spruce needles from the nearest forest. For heavy soils, river sand is also added. All these works must be carried out in a timely manner so that the soil in the pits has time to settle.
We plant heather crops not in a hole, but on a crest. For this, the soil is taken out to a depth of 20-40 cm. The removed soil is scattered around the future landing site. Peat with sand is poured in the form of a mound, and a blueberry bush is planted in its center.
The soil surface around the bush is mulched (the thickness of the mulch layer is 5-8 cm). The mulch layer retains moisture in the root zone, regulates the temperature of this layer, improves the illumination of the bush, destroys weeds and prevents the development of diseases.
Watering blueberries and blueberries no more than watering beets, carrots, potatoes and other crops.
If your soil is not acidic enough, you can acidify it by adding colloidal sulfur or adding sulfuric acid to the water. The easiest way to do this is to use electrolyte for filling acid batteries. 1 ml of electrolyte per 1 liter of water changes the pH from 7 to 5 units. Watering with such water is not necessary often - 1 time in 7-10 waterings.
There is another option for acidifying the soil: a year before planting plants, they put powdered sulfur into it (250 g per 1 m2 of land) or apply such mineral fertilizers as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, urea (no more than 20 g), potassium sulfate, nitroammofosk (add no more than 10 g for each square meter).
The main thing is not to overdo it with doses.
Fertilizers. The application of organic fertilization, especially on light, sandy soils, as well as on soils poor in humus, is an important measure for increasing yields of cultivated blueberries. Well-rotted manure, nutrient-rich compost or peat chips enriched with nutrients such as bird droppings and mineral fertilizers are all suitable for providing organic fertilizers to the bushes.
In no case should you use fresh manure (only well-rotted) or lime, as they affect plants.
You can use a complex fertilizer for rhododendrons - a handful in a pit.
Mineral fertilization, along with providing the bushes with nutrients, should also help regulate the reaction of the soil. On soils with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0, only ammonium sulfate, potassium magnesium sulfate (potassium and magnesium sulfate) and superphosphate should be used.
Of diseases on blueberries, the following are noted: stem cancer, drying of the tips of the shoots, gray rot. To protect plants from them, fungicides are used (euparen, benomyl, rovral, topsinM, cuprozan, etc.) at a concentration of 0.2% (2 g per 1 l of water). Spray several times in the spring before the fruit is formed and in the fall after harvest (interval 7-10 days).
On our website: www.abrikosnn.ru you can order seedlings of fruit trees and berry crops for your garden, and for home breeding - "Pavlovsky Lemon" and other citrus plants. We send planting material by mail to any corner of the country.
My address: 606160, Nizhny Novgorod region, Vachsky district, Novoselki village, Molodezhnaya street, house 4/2.
Tel .: + 7 950-360-27-68 - V.F.Svistunov.
I will also answer the questions that are asked in almost every letter.
Valery Svistunov, gardener
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
Both blueberries and blueberries grow best in moist, loose acidic soil (pH level 3.8-4.5). They are not afraid of high groundwater levels and severe frosts. Only late spring frosts can cause trouble - in this case, the flowers of the plants are damaged. It is protected from damage by abundant watering on the eve of frosts and covering overnight with non-woven material.
Blueberries begin to bear fruit 2-3 years after planting. The maximum harvests are observed after 7-10 years
Blueberries grow best in partial shade, which is created by trees or coniferous shrubs. Blueberries prefer areas that are lighted, sheltered from the wind.
Since both plants are accustomed to growing in the forest, where no one cares for them at all, then there will be no special problems with them. The main thing when growing in a garden is to maintain the acidity of the soil at a level of 4.5 pH and regularly to water landing. Fertilizer can be applied if desired - high peat or prepared on its basis compost... These ingredients not only nourish the plants but also acidify the soil.
Blueberry berries are covered with a special bluish bloom
Never feed blueberries and blueberries with humus or rotted manure - this will kill the plants.
Features of growing tall blueberries
We are already with you discussed methods growing blueberries tallth, which is also called garden blueberries , now let's look at the various features of working with this wonderful, tasty and healthy berry.
The roots of tall blueberries are found mainly at a depth of 30-40 cm, and this layer of earth should be humid. However, despite the fact that blueberries love moisture, groundwater should not be located closer than 60 cm to the soil surface.
Water the blueberries regularly to keep the soil moist, but not in excess, otherwise the roots of the plant may begin to rot. Since blueberries love high air humidity, watering from above will be very good for them in the evenings, and even better, in the form of water fog.
The soil should not be heavy. It can be light loam or sandy loam.
In the natural environment, on the roots of blueberries and blueberries, there is a symbiotic fungus endomycorrhiza, which helps the plant to supply itself with mineral nutrition. When growing blueberries and supplying them with mineral fertilizers, this symbiosis is not so strong.
Also, the soil should be sour ... For blueberries, the optimum pH is 4.5. 5.2. Sulfur is used to lower the pH. To increase acidity for 1pN, you need to make 35-40 grams per hundred square meters on light sandy loam, or 100-120 grams per hundred square meters on medium loams. Sulfur must be added a year before planting blueberries, so that soil bacteria have time to oxidize them. You can also add compost from oak leaves and kitchen scrubs to increase acidity. For watering, especially at first, you can use food or sulfuric acid. Citric or oxalic acid is added at the rate of 1 tablespoon per bucket of water, and apple or acetic acid is added at the rate of 100 ml per bucket of water. Sulfuric acid is an electrolyte for acid batteries sold at auto parts stores. It must be added at the rate of 50 ml per bucket of water. In the future, such acid watering should be done once a month.
Blueberries love soil with a rich organic content - a year before planting, it is recommended to sow the site with green manure, lupine or mustard, followed by embedding the green mass into the soil. Then every two to three years organic matter is added, 2-3 kilograms for each bush. Mineral fertilizers are also added: superphosphate, ammonium sulfate, potassium magnesium.
By the way, blueberry differs from blueberries in that it does not tolerate organic fertilizers. You can feed blueberries only with complex mineral fertilizers in an amount of no more than 1 tablespoon of mineral fertilizer per bush. Kemira-Universal or other similar mineral fertilizer is well suited for feeding blueberries.
Tall blueberries calmly tolerate frosts of -30 degrees, but during the flowering period, frosts are undesirable. Therefore, early blueberry varieties, such as Spartan, Patriot, Bluedzhey, may lose part of the harvest due to frost. For them, you should choose areas where cold air does not stagnate. Mid-ripening and late-ripening blueberry varieties, Northcantry, Norzkay, Bluecrop, Nelson, Eliot, bloom later, so frosts are not dangerous for them.
Blueberries are self-pollinated, but when pollinated by bees or bumblebees, their yield will be higher.
Planting blueberries is best in October. For blueberry cultivation, it is best to order container grown seedlings. In this case, the risk of root damage is minimal. In addition, if the seedlings are imported, then the root system is most likely washed out of the ground, and this significantly worsens the chances for the plant to take root in a new place.
For planting, one-year, two-year and three-year seedlings are usually used. From a two-year-old seedling, the first crop is obtained in the third year after planting, about 0.5 kg per bush, and in good yields, you can get it in 5-6 years, 20-30 kg per bush. Bushes usually bear fruit for 30-40 years, although there is information that some plantations have been producing a good harvest for 60 years.
Do not plant blueberries where potatoes, strawberries, sugar beets were previously grown - there are usually many free-living nematodes there. Also, do not plant blueberries where there are many beetle larvae, beetle beetles, and other pests.
Plants can be planted in rows, row width is from 1.5 to 2.5 meters, and between plants in a row - from 0.8 to 1.6 m. The root collar is not buried. After planting, the shoots are cut to a length of 20-30 cm.
Rows of blueberries are mulched with peat or sawdust in a layer 10 cm high. Coniferous sawdust must be composted for at least one year, fresh sawdust from deciduous trees can be used, but the rate of nitrogen fertilizers must be increased by one and a half times.
Pruning is carried out in early spring, when it is already clear which branches have been damaged by frost. Branches damaged and infected with diseases, as well as branches that touch the ground, are removed.
Ideally, a blueberry bush should have 6-8 healthy shoots that extend from the root collar. Pruning begins at 3-4 years of age. Old, over 4 years old, shoots, cut to a height of 20 cm.
Depending on the variety, the shoots can be erect or slightly drooping. The crop appears on the buds laid in the last year.
If the bush has given many side shoots, they are all cut out, otherwise the berries will be small.
Bushes over 15 years old are completely pruned to a height of 20 cm. This procedure allows you to rejuvenate the bush and preserve its yield.
Blueberries can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, and dividing.
Reproduction using seeds is done as follows: ripe berries are picked, kneaded, and poured with water. Then they collect the seeds that fall to the bottom and dry them. Repeat this procedure several times. Sow seeds in containers with peat. After a few weeks, you can already see the shoots. During the year, the seedlings are grown in containers. The containers are exposed outdoors, and in winter they are brought into a room with a temperature of at least 5-10 degrees. After a year, the plants can already be planted in a permanent place.
Blueberry propagation cuttings it is done in this way: twigs 5 cm long are harvested, and planted under the film on the beds. Young plants are transplanted to a school - to a special area for growing blueberries.
Reproduction dividing the bushes Is also one of the common methods. The mother plant is dug up in the fall, and divided into separate bushes. Each must have at least 5 buds.
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2 comments "
Someday I will start a dacha for myself! And this will not happen without your influence! )))))
Alexander will definitely use very valuable advice on growing garden blueberries in my garden. I advise all gardening lovers to use this information.
For planting blueberries, planting holes are dug about 35 by 35 cm in size, 45-50 cm deep (seedlings should fit in them along with an earthen clod).
2-3-year-old blueberry seedlings are planted in open ground. To successfully remove the plant from the container along with the earthy clod, water well beforehand. Loosen the earthen lump a little, moisten the roots with water and straighten them when planting. If these requirements are ignored, the seedlings will develop worse. Place the plant in the planting hole, add the missing amount of soil, tamp lightly, water abundantly. It is important that the root collar is flush with the soil surface.
It is advisable to mulch the plantings (spread the appropriate material in the trunk circle). Fresh peat, sawdust, leaf litter are used as mulch (it is better to take large leaves - oak, maple). Mulch will help trap moisture in the soil.
Some helpful tips for growing blueberries
The plant is whimsical, in order to grow it, you need to create optimal conditions.A beginner summer resident can show this process difficult at first, but if you figure it out and know a few secrets, you can easily get a good harvest of these wonderful forest berries in your country house.
- For planting, use partial shade, since in the forest this is the second or even the first tier and many more broad-leaved plants rise above it. Sunlight will burn the leaves, especially after summer rain and the ensuing heat.
- A lot of moisture is a must. We water exactly like mulched strawberries, that is, the ground must be constantly wet and under mulch. It is desirable that the land is not covered with sawdust, as always, but under the needles. Then the acidity will be increased - this is very good for blueberries.
- Salted water (1-2%). It stimulates the root system of the plant in the best way and nourishes it with the necessary minerals. If you want to get dense and large berries, you need to create the right microclimate.
- Fertilize: Use organics as you would when fertilizing remontant raspberries. Humus is great. 200 grams per 1m2, you can add a little nitrogen to stimulate the plant to gain vegetative mass after transplanting - it will develop faster, strengthen in the ground.
If you follow all the recommendations, you will have a good harvest of berries, and their taste will certainly delight you.
Forest blueberry photo
Blueberries and blueberries are close relatives, one might say, "sisters". Both of these plants belong to the extensive lingonberry family.
To get an idea of the difference between blueberries and blueberries in the photo, take a look at the images we found. At first glance, the main difference between the berries is in the color, as evidenced by the names of the berries themselves.
But for a successful forest walk with a basket, you should know what the plants themselves look like. When you find bushes with berries, pick and put their leaves in a basket - they will also come in handy.